Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Land Measurement Units Followed in India

Land measurement units vary a great deal across India from region to region.
The following traditional units are used most frequently in land transactions.

Katha  = 80 square yards
Nalli    = 240 square yards
Bhigha = 1600 square yards
Acre    = 4800 square yards

Monday, June 28, 2010

Highway Construction

Highways are divided into National Highways, State Highways and District Highways.

Major types of work involved are:
1. Constructing a new highway
2. Expansion of a highway eg 4 laning of an existing 2 lane highway
3. Repairing of a highway

The major items of work are:
1. Topographical Survey of the area
2. Road Alignment and Grading to minimize cut and fill
3. Earthwork in Mass Excavation
4. Earthwork in preparation of Embankment
5. Preparation of Subgrade
6. Laying of base course
7. Laying of wearing course
8. Laying of dense bitumen macadam
9. Laying of premix carpeting.

There are number of other activities such as laying of curbstones, road siding for protection, painting of road, road signage, medians, etc.

Monday, June 7, 2010


Galvanizing is process of depositing a layer of zinc coating on top of steel or iron to prevent rusting and improve the lifespan.
The thickness of zinc coating is measured in microns.

The two basic methods of achieving galvanizing are:
1. Electroplating
2. Hot-dip Galvanizing

Hot-dip galvanizing is preferred as it gives better quality of coating.
Ducts, pipes, fixtures, etc are some of the common items which are galvanized.

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Softwares Used in Construction Industry

2D Drafting Software: Autocad , ZW Cad

Rendering Software: Photoshop, Artlantis, 3D Max

BIM Softwares: Archicad, Revit

Structural Analysis Software: STAAD Pro, Etabs

Piping Software: Ceasar

Project Scheduling Software: Primavera P6, Microsoft Project

ERP Software: SAP modules of Project Systems and Material Management

The most useful software of all: MS Excel :)

To puchase these softwares in India, contact

Adroitec Information Sytems Pvt Ltd
D-194 (2nd Floor)
Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1,
New Delhi 110020

Tel: +91 11 47666444 , 41609231-33
Fax: +91 11 41609230

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

Reducing Costs in Construction

1. Freezing the architectural and structural drawing set by a certain date before start of construction. Starting the construction process without freezing the architectural and structural drawings could almost double the cost of the construction. Any design change in the middle of the project is very very expensive.
2. Minimizing discrepancies between the structural set and architectural set of drawings.
   Avoids rework and change orders. Use a BIM tool such as Archicad or Revit to create a 3D model of the building

3. Decisions needs to be taken on
   a) RMC or Batch Plant
   b) Shuttering - Wooden or metal
   c) Floor Plate should be divided in how many zones for optimal scheduling of rebar, shuttering and  concreting
   d) How many sets of shuttering will be required.
   e) Capacity of Batch Plant and location of Batch Plant w.r.t plate
   f) Tower Crane Height and Capacity.
      After how much time will extra tower crane be required.
      Location of tower cranes

4. Scope and Liablities of Owner and Contractor must be clearly defined and battery limit for the project must be eastablished at the earliest.

5. Siginificant savings maybe achieved in procurement of materials from local suppliers

6. Using precast walls in combination with frame structure

7. Use-fly ash bricks and fly ash concrete