Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Types of Cements available in India

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): Also referred to as grey cement or OPC, it is of much use in ordinary concrete construction. In the production of this type of cement in India, Iron (Fe2O3), Magnesium (MgO), Silica (SiO2), Alumina (AL2O3), and Sulphur trioxide (SO3) components are used.

Portland Pozolona Cement (PPC): As it prevents cracks, it is useful in the casting work of huge volumes of concrete. The rate of hydration heat is lower in this cement type. Fly ash, coal waste or burnt clay is used in the production of this category of cement. It can be availed at low cost in comparison to OPC.

Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement: This cement is beneficial in the areas where concrete has an exposure to seacoast or sea water or soil or ground water. Under any such instances, the concrete is vulnerable to sulphates attack in large amounts and can cause damage to the structure. Hence, by using this cement one can reduce the impact of damage to the structure. This cement has high demand in India.

Portland Blast Furnace slag cement (PBFSC): The rate of hydration heat is found lower in this cement type in comparison to PPC. It is most useful in massive construction projects, for example - dams

White cement: It is a kind of Ordinary Portland Cement. The content of iron oxide is maintained below 0.4% to secure whiteness. White cement is largely used to increase the aesthetic value of a construction. It is preferred for tiles and flooring works. This cement costs more than grey cement.

Important Books and Codes applicable in India for Architects and Civil Engineers

  • National Building Code 2005 - specifies minimum standard of design for buildings
  • Schedule of Rates 2007 by CPWD - Specifies the format of BOQ and Item Rate
      This book can be downloaded free of cost from the CPWD website from http://cpwd.gov.in/
      The book is listed under the 'Publications' tab on the navigation bar.
  • Analysis of Rates 2007 by CPWD - Specifies how the Item Rate has bee calculated
  • Delhi Master Plan 2021 - Species the use of land and per capita information
  • MCD Bye-Laws - Specifies construction restrictions for individual plots
  • Contracts - FIDIC and AIA (for international projects)